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Ritter speaks of three small towns on it as entirely surrounded by trees of this kind. This seems to be the name generally applied to it in the Shijarat Malayti (or Malay Chronicle), and it is used also by Abdurrazzak. The Kaifidrah Komar of the same traveller and other Arab writers, I have elsewhere suggested to be Khmer, or Kamboja Proper.

Still there seems a probability that the usual interpretation may be correct, when properly explained, [Regarding the identification of Locac with Siam, Mr. (2) Brazil - wood, now generally known by the Malay term Sappan, is abundant on the coast. (4) Cowries, according to Marsden and Crawfurd, are found in those seas largely only on the Sulu Islands ; but Bishop Pallegoix says distinctly that" they are found in abundance on the sand-banks of the Gulf of Siam. Fryer, in 1673, says that cowries were brought to Surat "from Siam and the Philippine Islands." For some centuries after this time Siam was generally known to traders by the Persian name oi Shahr-i-nao, or New City. According * The Kakula of Ibn Batuta was probably on the coast of Locac. It is possible that this was Phra Rama of Sukkothai. The latter is a corruption of the Sanskrit, Nagara, " city." I 28o MARCO POLO Book III. 49) Lukyn is the fust port of China, 100 parasangs distant from Sanf by land or sea ; Chinese stone, Chinese silk, porcelain of excellent quality, and rice are to be found at Lukyn.

— Of the Great Descent that leads towards the Kingdom of Mien . 657.)] The group consists of a larger island about 12 miles long, two of 2 or 3 miles, and some half- dozen others of insignificant dimensions. — Pauthier reads the name of the kingdom Soucat, but I adhere to the readings of the G. JNow this notable fact of the visit of a King of Malacca to the court of China, and his acknowledgment of the Emperor's supremacy, is also recorded in the Commentaries of Alboquerque. 249) that "if Malacca had been in the middle of the 14th century anything like the great emporium of trade which it certainly was in the 15th, Ibn Batuta would scarcely have failed to speak of it." The foundation of Malacca by Sri Iskandar Shah in 1252, according to the Sejarah Malayu "must be put at least 125 years later, and the establishment of the Muhammadan religion there would then precede by only a few years the end of the 14th century, instead of taking place about the end of the 13th, as is generally supposed" (p.

On this coast also was the Koind7- and Kamdrah of Ibn Batuta and other Arab writers, the great source of aloes- wood, the country then of the Khmer or Kambojan People." {Notes on the Oldest Records of the Sea- Route to China from Western Asia, Proc, R. It is true that in 627, the King of Kamboja, according to the Chinese Annals (A^^wz/. The group is termed Stmdar Fuldt {F-iddt representing the Malay Pulo or Island, in the plural) in the Arab Relations of the 9th century, the last point of departure on the voyage to China, from which it was a month distant. Again, both De Barros and the Commentaries of Alboquerque ascribe the foundation of Malacca to a Javanese fugitive from Paleuibang called Paramisura, and Alboquerque makes Iskandar Shah {Xaquem darxa) the son of Paramisura, and the first convert to Mahomedanism. And the Commentaries of Alboquerque allow no more than some ninety years from the foundation of Malacca to his capture of the city. Logan supposes that the form Malayu-r may indicate that the Malay language of the 13th century "had not yet replaced the strong naso-guttural terminals by pure vowels." We find the same form in a contemporary Chinese Chap. "The Siamese had long been at war with the Maliyi or Matjurh, but both nations laid aside their feud and submitted to China," ( Valentyn, V.

We shall quote the whole of his remarks at the end of the chapters on Kinsay. It is in the ancient form of the language (naturally) that the relation of Chinese to other languages can best be traced ; and as the Amoy vernacular, which very generally retains the final consonants in their original shape, has been one of the chief sources from which the ancient form of Chinese has been recovered, the study of that vernacular is of considerable importance." * Chinese-English Dictionary of the Vernacular or Spoken language of Amoy., with the principal variations of the Chang-chezv and CJiin-cheiu Dialects; by the Rev. ^ Chansgan ^'^^/—ypi F^ Simg t^uuo K\nseiy / Ganfu if'z/-— which is unquestion- ably Champa — also lay west of the Cape, i.e. The fact is that the Indo-Chinese kingdoms have gone through unceasing and enormous vicissi- tudes, and in early days Champa must have been extensive and powerful, for in the travels of Hiuen Tsang (about A. The locality of the ancient port of Zabai or Champa is probably to be sought on the west coast of Kamboja, near the Campot, or the Kang-kao of our maps. But the capital of this rival State of Kamboja would thus be very near the Treang province where inscriptions have been found with the names of Bhavavarman and of I^anavarman. Certain old geographers, we may observe, did follow that indication, and the results were curious enough, as we shall notice in next note but one, Marsden's observations are Chap. THE ISLANDS OF SONDUR AND CONDUR 277 so just that I have followed Pauthier in substituting Champa for Java in the text. — There is no reason to doubt that these islands are the group now known as that of Pulo Condore, in old times an important landmark, and occasional point of call, on the route to China. This certainly indicates that the period requires considerable curtailment. 4) that Malacca was founded hy Per fnictcri, primeiro monarcha de JSIalayos, in the year 1411, in the Pontificate of John XXIV., and in the reign of Don Juan II. of Portugal.] The historian De Couto, whilst giving the same number of reigns from the con- version to the capture, places the former event about 1384. This records that in the 2nd year of the Yuen, tribute was sent from Siam to the Emperor.

["These may also be the 'Satyrs' Islands' of Ptolemy, or they may be his Sindai ; for he has a Sinda city on the coast close to this position, though his Sindai islands are dropt far away. This informs us that Malacca first acknowledged itself as tributary to the Empire in 1405, the king being Sili-jti- eul-stda (? In 141 1 the King of Malacca himself, now called Peilintisula (Paramisura), came in person to the court of China to render homage.

This old record gives us the name Sondor ; in modern times we have it as Kondor ; Polo combines both names. Four other kings reign in succession after him, the last of the four being Mahomed Shah, expelled in 151 1. There is another approximate check to the chronology aftbrded by a Chinese record in the X I Vth volume of Amyot's collection.

WITH MAPS AND ILLUSTRATIONS LONDON JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET, W.

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